General Ousman Badjie, the defense chief of staff, was removed along with 10 other senior officers, including the directors of operations and intelligence, army spokesman Lieutenant Kemo Kanuteh said. Badjie will be replaced by Barrow's military advisor Massaneh Kinteh, also a defense chief of staff under Jammeh.
The director of the prisons system was also arrested, as were nine men suspected of being members of Yahya Jammeh's alleged death squads, known as the Jungulars.
The moves are the latest in a series of arrests and personnel changes under Barrow, seeking to assert control following the end of Jammeh's 22-year rule. The former president fled into exile last month after refusing to accept his election defeat.